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Era un lucru bine cunoscut de fizicieni de decenii: particulele sunt de numai doua tipuri, bozoni si fermioni. Fermionii sunt particulele care insista cu orice pret sa ocupe singure o stare cuantica, in timp ce bozonii n-au nimic impotriva sa stea la un loc cu oricate alte particule. Cu toate acestea, fizicienii nu puteau raspunde la intrebarea "de ce?". De ce sunt numai aceste doua tipuri de particule? Aparatul matematic al mecanicii cuantice parea sa lase loc si altor combinatii posibile. Din aceasta cauza, acum vreo 30 de ani a fost propus ca poate aceste combinatii chiar sunt posibile. Au fost numite "anyoni" (a nu se confunda cu anionii, o alta denumire pentru ionii negativi).
In mathematics, a metric space is a set where a notion of distance (called a metric) between elements of the set is defined. The metric space which most closely corresponds to our intuitive understanding of space is the 3-dimensional Euclidean space. In fact, the notion of "metric" is a generalization of the Euclidean metric arisig from the four long-known properties of the Euclidean distance. The Euclidean metric defines the distance between two points as the length of the straight line segment connecting them. The geometric properties of the space depend on the metric chosen, and by using a different metric we can construct interesting non-Euclidean geometries such as those used in the theory of general relativity.
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